• Binod Kumar Agarwala


A metaphysical principle is stated in Bhagavadgītā 2.27, which deals with the relationship between the first and the last of the six vikāras (modes) of bhāva (being). But, none of the traditional commentators of the Bhagavadgītā could grasp the exact meaning and significance of this metaphysical principle. These commentators turned the metaphysical principle erroneously into a theory of cycle of birth and death in the saṃsāra governed by law of karma. The traditional commentators are not actually faithful to the nuances of the terms and syntax of the verses due to their prior doctrinal commitments, which prevent them from seeing the meaning present in them. The modern commentators like Angelika Malinar see Bhagavadgītā 2.27 as part of a Kṛṣṇa’s speech of consolation for grieving Arjuna. This reading is also problematic. If Kṛṣṇa’s speech in Bhagavadgītā 2.11-30 is a speech of consolation then given the kind of metaphysical statements are included in the speech, it would also automatically become a speech for justification of killing and war. It will be argued in the present essay that the metaphysical principle stated in Bhagavadgītā 2.27 is necessary for explaining the idea of yajña karma, which is collective institutional action.