Native American Diabetes Prevention Intervention Programs
A Systematic Review
Background and Purpose: Diabetes is one of the biggest health problems for the American Indian and Alaska Native communities. The purpose of this study was to review lifestyle based diabetes interventions from January 1995 to January 2015. Methods: The target population within this systematic review was adult American Indians and Alaska Natives. Four databases (Medline, Google Scholar, PsychINFO, and JSTOR) were used to find articles, of which nine articles met the inclusion criteria of being either an intervention or prevention program that reported at least one physiological or biological indicator of diabetes. Results: Among the nine articles reviewed, six articles showed significant changes of physiological indicators. Three of the studies only targeted the female population. Most of the programs lasted between 6 to 12 months. A major limitation among intervention or prevention programs was an inadequate use of a theoretical behavior change model. Conclusion: Overall, it was found that physical activities and diet -based methods have the potential for diabetes prevention and intervention programs among American Indian and Alaska Native populations. Recommendations for future research include using randomized controlled trial research design, and using theory to guide program development.