Factors Affecting the Consumption of Away-from-Home Foods in Hawai`i Residents
Higher frequencies of consuming away-from-home foods has been associated with greater Body Mass Index (BMI), weight gain, and obesity, affecting people of different genders, ethnicities, and socioeconomic status (SES) groups differently. The purpose of this study was to determine how SES, ethnicity, gender, and the frequency of away-from-home food consumption at fast food and sit-down restaurants affected BMI levels and dieting practices for Hawai`i residents. Data were from a cross-sectional randomdigit dial telephone survey of the state of Hawai`i in the spring of 2006. Data were analyzed using a oneway ANOVA, Pearson's bivariate correlation analysis, a linear regression model, and direct logistic regression. Native Hawaiians reported eating at fast food restaurants most often (58.5%), while Japanese participants reported eating at sit-down restaurants most often (48.6%). Native Hawaiians had the highest rates of overweight and obesity (69.1%), but they were most likely to report being on a diet (50.1%), followed by Chinese participants (49.5%). A higher frequency of eating at fast food restaurants was related to higher BMI, male gender and less education (p < .05), while a higher frequency of eating at sitdown restaurants was related to higher income and more education (p < .05). Higher BMI and lower income were related to dieting to lose weight (p < .05). Over 6% of the variance in BMI was accounted for by gender, income, eating at fast food and sit-down restaurants, and dieting to lose weight, F(59, 1440) = 18.63, p < .05. The frequency of eating at fast food and sit-down restaurants as predictors for dieting to lose weight were not statistically significant (p > .05). Future research should investigate what types of food are available at fast food, sit-down restaurants, or other away-from-home food sources and which types of foods at these locations consumers are more likely to select based on their SES, BMI, or dieting practices.